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Add2Exchange Architecture

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The following diagram illustrates the architecture of Add2Exchange:

Add2Exchange Architecture

Add2Exchange Console

The Add2Exchange Console is the configuration control center of the product.  Relationships are created, maintained and deleted and global options are configured through this interface.  The console may only be accessed from the service account on the server on which Add2Exchange is installed.

The console communicates with Exchange through the Collaboration Data Objects API, which is the next layer down in the illustration.  See the details on CDO below.  It also provides status on WMI communication with the Exchange Server in the Service > Utility window.

The console operates exclusively of the service.  When the console is started, it stops the service so changes aren't being made to the settings while synchronization is taking place.  When the console is exited, it prompts to restart the service.

Add2Exchange Service

The service is a normal windows service appearing in the Windows Services administrative tool.  It can be started and stopped through this interface, or by entering and exiting the console (and electing to start the service when prompted).

To remove Add2Exchange from operation temporarily, set the service startup type to Manual.  It is recommended to not set it to Disabled, as this will prevent Add2Exchange from uninstalling properly in the event that you wish to uninstall it.

Collaboration Data Objects (CDO)

Both the service as well as the console communicate with Exchange through the Collaboration Data Objects API, the next layer down.  This is a client API that must be installed on the same system with Add2Exchange.

CDO is automatically installed with Exchange System Management Tools, so if you are installing Add2Exchange on an Exchange 2003 Server, CDO is already installed by default.

If you are installing on a separate synchronization server or with Exchange 2007, CDO will need to be installed. The CDO included with Microsoft Outlook conflicts with Add2Exchange.

Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI)

The Add2Exchange Service also requires Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) access to the Exchange Server.  WMI comes installed on all Windows systems but the Add2Exchange service account must have administrative privileges to access it.  For this reason the service account must be a member of the local Administrators group on not only the machine on which Add2Exchange is installed, but also the Exchange Server (if these are not the same machine).  Note that on a domain controller, the local Administrators group is the Administrators group in the domain.  Status on WMI access to the Exchange Server is provided in the Service > Utility window of the console.

SQL Server Express 2005

Add2Exchange tracks information about the Exchange items it has synchronized.  This information is necessary to determine the appropriate synchronization action to take in response to a trigger event.  Prior to version 4 of Add2Exchange, synchronization information was stored in Exchange.  Version 4 of Add2Exchange moved this information into a separate database for scalability and performance reasons.

Beginning with version 4, Add2Exchange began shipping with Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express Edition.  SQL Server 2005 Express Edition is the next version of MSDE and is a free, easy-to-use, lightweight, and embeddable version of SQL Server 2005.  SQL Server express shares many features with the standard SQL Server product, but has higher security by default and also limitations on scale, including:

No default networking - SQL Server Express installs with only local system access for higher security.
Single CPU - Even if your system has multiple CPUs, SQL Server Express will only take advantage of one of them
1GB Memory - SQL Server Express will only use up to 1GB of RAM.
4GB Database - SQL Server Express will only allow database files to grow to 4GB in size.

As used by Add2Exchange, SQL Server Express is meant to be an integrated application-specific database, much like MSDE, Access or flat-file databases.  For this reason, Add2Exchange does not currently support integrating it's database into existing SQL Server installations.

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